Computer Fundamental


What is Computer?

What is Computer? A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. IPO cycle [Input-Process-Output cycle]

Computer Generation

Computer Generation Development of is known as Generation of Computer. Development of computers is categorized into five Generation depending upon size, technology used, storage capacity , computing capacity etc. Which is first computing Device? The computing device you will be surprised to know that it was built 2600 years ago in China and is known as Abacus. In …

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Computer Classification

Computer Classification Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows: Personal computer: A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data. Personal computers first appeared in the late 1970s. One of …

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Hardware, Software & Firmware

Hardware, Software & Firmware   Computer Hardware Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, in comparison with software and data, which are “soft” in the sense that they are readily created, modified or …

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Input device

Input Devices Input Devices are used to input provide data to the computer. Depending upon data to be input, we use different input device. Some input devices are: • Computer mouse • Keyboard • Trackball (or roller ball) • Joystick • Light pen • Touchpad • Yoke (aircraft) • Image scanner • 3D scanner Mouse A mouse (plural mice …

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Special Input Devices

Bar Code Readers A bar code is a specialized code represented by sets of parallel bars of varying thickness and separation. This is used for fast identification of items with an optimal scanner. The optical scanner is called a bar code reader. The bar code reader is a photoelectric scanner that read the bar code. Magnetic Data Entry MICR Reader …

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CPU [Central Processing Unit]

CPU [Central Processing Unit] Central Processing Unit Though the term relates to a specific chip or the processor a CPU’s performance is determined by the rest of the computer’s circuitry and chips. Currently, the Pentium chip or processor, made by Intel, is the most common CPU though there are many other companies that produce processors …

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Output Devices

What is Output Devices? Output Devices An output device is a piece of hardware (a key physical part of a computer that can be touched) which a machine, typically a computer, uses to present information to the user. It can show any amount of information and any kind of information; for instance: sound, data, memory, images etc… …

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Computer Bus

A BUS is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers and typically is controlled by device driver software. Unlike a point-to-point connection, a Bus can logically connect several peripherals over the same set of wires. Each bus defines its set of connectors to physically plug devices, cards or cables …

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Computer Memory

Computer Memory Memory can be very confusing but is usually one of the easiest pieces of hardware to add to your computer. It is common to confuse chip memory with disk storage. An example of the difference between memory and storage would be the difference between a table where the actual work is done (memory) and …

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Memory Unit

Memory Unit Computer data is in what is called binary format. This means that it is always a 0 or a 1. It only has these two states and must be in one of them. There are several fundamental data units which include: • Bit: A data unit which must be in one of the two binary states described above. …

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Computer Data

Computer Data Computer data is raw information required by the computer to be able to operate. It is used to: • Run programs– This is the actual executable program data that the computer will execute to run the program such as Microsoft Word. • Store program or system configuration information. • Store information that the computer user needs such …

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Files & Folders

Files & Folders   Files Once you have typed or created a new document or file on your computer, you will have to decide what to do with it. You could print it right away using a Print command and then Exit or Quit your program without saving it, but most of the time you will want …

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Backup & Disk Defragmentation

Backup & Disk Defragmentation Defragmentation In the context of administering computer systems, defragmentation (or defragging) is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation in file systems. It does this by physically reorganizing the contents of the disk in order to store the pieces of each file close together and in order (contiguously). It also attempts to create …

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Computer Software The term software describes the programs that run on your system. This includes your computer operating system and other computer programs which run. The software is written in a computer language (such as Basic, C, Java, or others) by programmers. The computer language is in a text format and can be read by a person although if you do not …

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Types of Software

Types of Software The term “software” was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in around 1957-58. In software engineering, computer software is all computer programs. Practical computer systems divide software into three major classes: 1. System Software 2. Language Translator/Interpreter/Compilers Software. 3. Application Software.

Installing & Uninstalling Software

Installing & Uninstalling Software In order to the ease & features provided by software we first need to load that software into computer and register this new software with operating system. This process is known as Software Installation. On the other hand unloading a software that we doesn’t need any more is known as Software Uninstallation.

What is an Operating System?

What is an Operating System? The operating system is the core software component of your computer. It performs many functions and is, in very basic terms, an interface between your computer and the outside world. In the section about hardware, a computer is described as consisting of several component parts including your monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other parts. The operating …

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Task of Operating System

Task of Operating System Process management Every program running on a computer, be it background services or applications, is a process. Modern operating systems[Windows, Linux etc] enable concurrent execution of many processes at once via multitasking even with one CPU. Process Management is an operating system’s way of dealing with running multiple processes. Since most computers contain one processor …

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