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What is Cryptography?

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the science and art of transforming messages to make them secure and immune to attack.

Cryptography is used to encryption renders a message unintelligible to unauthorized personnel. Decryption transforms an intentionally unintelligible message into meaningful information.
 
Cryptography algorithms are classified as either symmetric-key methods or public public-key methods.
In symmetric key cryptography, the same secret key is used by the sender and the receiver.
cipher using the substitution method substitutes one symbol with another. Substitution can be categorized as either monoalphabetic or polyalphabetic.
Operation modes to handle long messages include the most common like ECB mode.
In public key cryptography, the public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message the private key is used by the receiver to decrypt the message.
One of the commonly used public key cryptography methods is the RSA algorithm.