Installing Linux on Your PC

Installtion of Linux can vary from Linux to Linux, some distributions are quite easy even for newbies on the other hand some requires hands on experience on Linux. Distributions such as *buntu(Ubuntu,Kbuntu etc),Mandriva, Xendros, Fedora Core, PC Linux, Linspire,FreeSpire etc are known for there ease for installation.
Note:
It is neither possible nor logical to describe installation procedure of each and every Linux distribution in one tutorial. There are more than 300 Linux Distributions available world wide, and for sure it is not possible to cover even 10% of them. So we are going to describe the installation procedure of Linux with the help of Fedora Core 6.
Please note that eventhough we are using Fedora Core for installation and other demonstrations it doesn’t mean that you are bound to use Fedora for your use. You can install any Linux of your choice which you find easy.
Installing Fedora Core 6
Installing Fedora Core 6 on your PC is quite easy. I have tried my best to make this installation guide easy, if you have skipped last two topics(Prerequisite and Pre-install Tasks), please read them to avoid any kind of trouble during installation time.
This installation guide is divided in following parts:
• Language and Keyboard Selection

• The Welcome Screen

• Upgrade an existing Installation

• Fresh Installation of Fedora Core 6

• Disk Partitioning

• Disk-partitions with Disk Druid

• Configure Boot Loader

• Select your Time Zone

• Configure your Network

• Select your Time Zone

• Set your Root password

• Software Selection

• Install Fedora

After testing all the five disks insert the disk no.1 and follows the instruction until you reaches again testing stage having a window option ‘Test’ and ‘Skip’.
This time press ‘Skip’ to continue. The process of installation begins…. If the installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer, it displays text screens rather than the default graphical interface. The text screens provide the same functions as the standard screens. Later in the installation process you can manually specify your display hardware.
Language Selection and Keyboard Selection
Language Selection
The installation program displays a list of languages supported by Fedora.
Use Arrow keys to move up and down and press Enter/Space bar continue
Keyboard Selection
The installation program display a list of the keyboard layouts supported by Fedora:
Highlight the correct layout on the list, and select Next.
The Welcome Screen
After the installation program loads its next stage, the following dialog appears:
You may not be able to see this screen if
The installation program may continue in text mode if:
? your computer has 128 MB of memory or less
? you booted with the text option
The screens shown in the following chapters are based on a default graphical installation. However, most functions are similar regardless of the installation mode.
From here onwards you can do two things:
• Upgrade your Existing Installation
• or Do a Fresh installation
If you do not have Linux on your system, skip the Upgrade an existing Installation part.
Upgrade an existing Installation
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Fedora. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any data from users’ home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change.
Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
If your system contains a Fedora or Red Hat Linux installation, the following screen appears:
Boot loader Upgrade
Your completed Fedora installation must be registered in the boot loader to boot properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the operating system. If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system can modify it to load the new Fedora system. To update the existing Linux boot loader, select Update boot loader configuration. This is the default behavior when you upgrade an existing Fedora or Red Hat Linux installation.
GRUB is the standard boot loader for Fedora. If your machine uses another boot loader, such as BootMagic™, System Commander™, or the loader installed by Microsoft Windows, then the Fedora installation system cannot update it. In this case, select Skip boot loader updating. When the installation process completes, refer to the documentation for your product for assistance.
Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want to replace the existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be able to boot other operating systems on the same machine until you have configured the new boot loader. Select Create new boot loader configuration to remove the existing boot loader and install GRUB. After you make your selection, click Next to continue.
Fresh Installation of Fedora Core 6
If you don’t have an earlier version of Fedora Linux on your system then after the first screen ( just a welcome one); hit Next and then, on the second screen, you’ll have to choose your language – default is English. Hit Next again – the third screen will ask you about your keyboard layout – default is U.S. English.
The next screen is about partitioning your hard drive. I always recommend having a blank drive, with no other operating system on it. At this point, I suggest leaving the settings as they are and hitting the Next button. Before we go to the next screen, a warning will appear that says all data on that drive will be destroyed; if you agree to that, just hit YES (if you really agree, of course).
Disk Partitioning
Fedora creates and uses several partitions on the available hard drives. You may customize both the partitions, and how the drives on your system are managed
The options available are:
• Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout
• Remove All Partitions and Create Default Layout
• Use the free space on selected drive and create default layout
• Create default layout
The box on the screen lists the available drives. By default, the installation process may affect all of the drives on your computer. To ensure that specific drives are not repartitioned, clear the check box next to those drives on this list.
The installation process erases any existing Linux partitions on the selected drives, and replaces them with the default set of partitions for Fedora. All other types of partitions remain unchanged. For example, partitions used by Microsoft Windows, and system recovery partitions created by the computer manufacturer, are both left intact. You may choose an alternative from the drop-down list:
Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout
Avoid this option, unless you wish to erase all of the existing operating systems and data on the selected drives.
Remove linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout
If the selected drives have any Linux partitions, this option removes them and installs Fedora into the resulting free space. This option does not modify partitions assigned to other non-Linux operating systems. It does not discriminate, however, between partitions assigned to different Linux distributions, and will remove all of them.
Use free space on selected drives and create default layout
If the selected drives have free space that has not been assigned to a partition, this option installs Fedora into the free space. This option ensures that no existing partition is modified by the installation process.
Create custom layout
You manually specify the partitioning on the selected drives. The next screen enables you to configure the drives and partitions for your computer. If you choose this option, Fedora creates no partitions by default.
Select Review and modify partitioning layout to customize the set of partitions that Fedora creates, to configure your system to use drives in RAID arrays, or to modify the boot options for your computer. If you choose one of the alternative partitioning options, this is automatically selected.
Use the Advanced storage options option if:
? You want to install Fedora to a drive connected through the iSCSI protocol. Select Advanced storage options, then select Add iSCSI target, then select Add drive. Provide an IP address and the iSCSI initiator name, and select Add drive.
? You want to disable a dmraid device that was detected at boot time.
Choose a partitioning option, and select Next to proceed.
Disk-partitions with Disk Druid
What is Disk Druid?
Disk Druid is an interactive program for editing disk partitions. Users run it only within the Fedora installation system. Disk Druid enables you to configure Linux software RAID and LVM to provide more extensible and reliable data storage.
Warning: Disk Druid is not for novice users. Think twice before u make any changes in layout. After you finish setting up and reviewing your partition configuration, select Next to continue the installation process.
Configure Boot Loader
What is a BootLoader?
A boot loader is a small program that reads and launches the operating system. Fedora uses the GRUB boot loader by default. If you have multiple operating systems, the boot loader determines which one to boot, usually by offering a menu.
You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system may install its own preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party boot loader.If your boot loader does not recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to boot Fedora.
Use GRUB as your boot loader to boot Linux and most other operating systems. Follow the directions in this chapter to install GRUB
Linux has two BootLoaders :
• LILO
• GURB
Fedora Core no more supports LILO and the BootLoader you have is GURB. Note:Your computer must have GRUB or another boot loader installed in order to start, unless you create a separate startup disk to boot from.
If you have other operating systems already installed, Fedora attempts to automatically detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure any additional operating systems if GRUB does not detect them. To add, remove, or change the detected operating system settings, use the options provided.
The following screen displays boot loader configuration options.
Click on Add Button to add more entries to the GURB menu.
You can select Configure advanced boot loader Options if you want to customize your boot loader such as where boot loader should be placed etc. After editing the boot loader settings click on Next to continue.
Configure your Network
Use this screen to customize the network settings of your Fedora system. Manual network configuration of a Fedora system is often not required. Many networks have a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) service that automatically supplies connected systems with configuration data. By default, Fedora activates all network interfaces on your computer and configures them to use DHCP.
Select manually to manually configure your network settings and click on Edit button to enter your IP Address etc. After you click on Edit button it will display a Network Configuration Dialog box, Deselect the Configure using DHCP check box, so that it is empty. Enter the IP Address and the appropriate Netmask for the interface. Then select OK.
To manually configure a network interface, you may also provide other network settings for your computer. All of these settings are the IP addresses of other systems on the network.
A gateway is the device that provides access to other networks. Gateways are also referred to as routers. If your system connects to other networks through a gateway, enter its IP address in the Gateway box.
Most software relies on the DNS (Domain Name Service) provider to locate machines and services on the network. DNS converts hostnames to IP addresses and vice versa. A Fedora system may use more than one DNS server. If the primary DNS server does not respond, the computer sends any query to the secondary DNS server, and so on. To assign DNS servers, type their IP addresses into the Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary DNS Server boxes.
Click Next once you are satisfied with the network settings for your system.
Select your Time Zone
This screen allows you to specify the correct time zone for the location of your computer. Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of the system clock.
To select a time zone using the map, first place your mouse pointer over your region on the map. Click once to magnify that region on the map. Next, select the yellow dot that represents the city nearest to your location. Once you select a dot, it becomes a red X to indicate your selection.
To select a time zone using the list, select the name of the city nearest to your location. The cities are listed in alphabetical order.
Warning:
Do not enable the System clock uses UTC option if your machine also runs Microsoft Windows. Microsoft operating systems change the BIOS clock to match local time rather than UTC. This may cause unexpected behavior under Fedora.
Set your Root (System Administrator) password
Fedora uses a special account named root for system administration. The root account on a Linux system is not subject to most normal account restrictions. As the system owner or administrator, you may sometimes require special privileges to configure or modify the system. In those cases, use the root account.
The Fedora installation program needs the root password. It must be at least six characters
Use the following guidelines for creating a good password:
1:- Use a combination of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation and other characters.

2:- Do not use a word or name. Obscuring the word or name with substitute characters is not effective.

3:- Do not use the same password for more than one system.

Click on ‘Next’. The process goes on.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Fedora displays the characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.
Select the Softwares to be installed
By default, the Fedora installation process loads a selection of software that is suitable for a desktop system.

To include or remove software for common tasks, select the relevant items from the list: Office and Productivity

This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, the Planner project management application, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Fedora system.
Web server
This option provides the Apache Web server. Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail.

This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select Next Fedora divides the included software into package groups.

For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as six categories:

To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Fedora automatically installs the base and mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
Core Network Services
All Fedora Core installations include the following network services:
? centralized logging through syslog
? email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
? network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
? remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
? resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
? network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)

? printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)

? remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)

Some automated processes on your Fedora system use the email service to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Fedora installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Fedora system after installation to offer email, file sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.
Go & Install Fedora
No changes are made to your computer until you click the Next button. If you abort the installation process after that point, the Fedora system will be incomplete and unusable. To return to previous screens to make different choices, select Back. To abort the installation, turn off the computer.
So are you ready to go? Are you ready to enjoy the world of Linux?

Are you ready to enjoy freedom of free? So what are you waiting for? Click Next to begin the installation.

Fedora reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the selected packages to your system. Network and DVD installations require no further action. If you are using CDs to install, Fedora prompts you to change discs periodically. After you insert a disc, select OK to resume the installation.
After installation is done, select Reboot to restart your computer.

Fedora ejects any loaded discs before the computer reboots.

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