|Black Box Testing is testing without knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested. For example, when black box testing is applied to software engineering, the tester would only know the “legal” inputs and what the expected outputs should be, but not how the program actually arrives at those outputs. It is because of this that black box testing can be considered testing with respect to the specifications, no other knowledge of the program is necessary. For this reason, the tester and the programmer can be independent of one another, avoiding programmer bias toward his own work. For this testing, test groups are often used, “Test groups are sometimes called professional idiots…people who are good at designing incorrect data.” 1 Also, do to the nature of black box testing, the test planning can begin as soon as the specifications are written. The opposite of this would be glass box testing, where test data are derived from direct examination of the code to be tested. For glass box testing, the test cases cannot be determined until the code has actually been written. Both of these testing techniques have advantages and disadvantages, but when combined, they help to ensure thorough testing of the product.