Japan bids farewell to former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in an elaborate state funeral Tuesday, despite public opposition to the cost of the event as the country grapples with their late leader’s legacy.
Abe, Japan’s longest-serving prime minister, was shot dead during a campaign speech in Nara in July, stunning a nation where gun violence is extremely rare.
More than 4,300 guests are expected to attend the service at the Nippon Budokan Arena in Tokyo, including foreign dignitaries such as US Vice President Kamala Harris and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
According to the official program, Abe’s ashes will be carried into the venue, where Self-Defense Force (SDF) officers will carry out ceremonial rites such as an honor guard, gun salute, and musical performances.
Japanese leaders will then give memorial addresses and attendees will offer flowers before the government holds a reception for visiting foreign dignitaries.
Police have ramped up security, with public broadcaster NHK reporting that about 20,000 police officers will be deployed to keep the peace, as hundreds of people took to the streets to protest against the first state funeral for a Japanese leader in more than half a century.
On Tuesday morning, crowds of people lined up outside designated memorial sites to leave flowers and pay their final respects to Abe, who dominated Japanese politics for a generation.
But as they mourned, more than 1,000 others took to the streets in anti-funeral protests, illustrating a deep public divide over the occasion.
Crowds chanted slogans as they marched near the funeral venue, with some waving banners that urged a stop to the proceedings. Protest leaders rallied the crowd through loudspeakers, and a van rolled past with music blasting from a boom box.
Since Abe’s assassination, the country has faced rising inflation and revelations that half of Japan’s ruling party members had ties with the controversial Unification Church, which has faced backlash over fundraising practices – prompting the church to pledge reforms to ensure that donations are “not excessive.”
Some critics have pointed to Abe’s unpopular policies as a reason for discontent, and questioned why so much taxpayer money is going to the state funeral – which will cost some $12 million (1.66 billion yen) – at a time of acute economic strain.
“It was a tragedy that Abe was gunned down and lost his life, but we shouldn’t make him a hero out of this tragedy,” one protester, Shinsaku Nohira, told CNN at a recent anti-state funeral demonstration outside Japan’s parliament.
“At least half of Japan’s population is against this state funeral, so I don’t want the government’s messaging to get out there, I want people out there to know that there are citizens in Japan who are opposing this event.”
An opinion poll by NHK earlier in September showed that 57% of respondents oppose the state funeral, compared to 32% who support it – and the rest said they didn’t know, or declined to answer.
Prime Minister Fumio Kishida has tried to appease the public, saying a state funeral for Abe was “fitting” given his achievements as former leader. The ceremony is not meant to “force people to mourn” or to become a “political issue,” he said in August.
Abe held office for two separate terms, during which he transformed Japan’s security posture, raising questions over the country’s status as a pacifist nation, and passed a major security legislation in 2015 that expanded what Japan could do militarily to support the US.
He also was a prominent figure on the world stage, cultivating strong ties with Washington and seeking better relations with Beijing – while also trying to counter Chinese expansion in the region by uniting Pacific allies.
One of his final successes in office was securing the 2020 Tokyo Olympics – though the Covid-19 pandemic forced the competition to be postponed to 2021.
After stepping down in 2020, citing health reasons, Abe remained active in politics, often campaigning for his party – which is what he was doing at the time of his assassination.
NHK reported in July that the suspected shooter, Tetsuya Yamagami, had targeted the former Prime Minister because he believed Abe’s grandfather – another former Japanese leader – had helped the expansion of a religious group he held a grudge against.
CNN has not been able to independently confirm what group Yamagami was referring to, or links between Abe and any group the suspect harbored hatred towards.
Controversial church under the microscope after assassination
But the assassination saw a backlash against the Unification Church, which said Yamagami’s mother had been a member who attended church events, though Yamagami himself was never a member.
It also said that the church had received a message of support from Abe at an event it organized, but that the former prime minister was not a registered church member, nor did he sit on its advisory board.
Abe’s death sent shock waves through Japan and the international community, with thousands of mourners gathering in Tokyo in July as his private funeral took place.